Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin
resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly,
sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. (Formerly referred
to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM for short, and adult-onset
Genes significantly associated with developing type 2 diabetes,
include TCF7L2, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11, NOTCH2, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8,
JAZF1, and HHEX.
Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions,
lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining blood glucose
levels in the normal range.
Aerobic exercise is beneficial in
diabetes with the greater the amount of exercise the better the results.
It leads to a decrease in HbA1C,
improved insulin resistance, and a better V02
max. Resistance training is
also useful and the combination of both types of exercise may be most
effective. A diabetic diet that promotes weight lose is important.
While the best diet type to achieve this is controversial a low glycemic
index diet has been found to improve blood sugar control. Culturally
appropriate education may help people with type 2 diabetes control their
blood sugar levels, for up to six months at least. .
There is much controversy regarding what diet to recommend to sufferers
of diabetes mellitus. The diet most often recommended is high in dietary
fiber, especially soluble fiber, but low in fat (especially saturated
fat). Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained
from carbohydrate intake range from 1/6 to 75% a 2006 review
found recommendations varying from 40 to 65%. Patients may be encouraged
to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index
(GI), although this is also controversial. (In cases of hypoglycemia,
they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose
quickly, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread)
to prevent risk of further hypoglycemia.) But others question the usefulness
of the glycemic index and recommend high-GI foods like potatoes and
Diabetes Friendly Food
with diabetes can be a challenge, but these tasty recipes make it easier